YOUR BETTER CHOICE FOR PROFESSIONAL-GRADE SUPPLEMENTS
Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin) tablets supply 500 mcg of vitamin B-12 in each easy-to-swallow tablet.
Quantity: 100 Tablets
VITAMIN B-12 500 mg
Vitamin B-12 tablets dissolve rapidly, releasing 500 mcg
of pure vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 is essential for normal energy metabolism of
carbohydrates, fat and protein. As a cofactor for
methylmalonyl-CoA mutase enzymes, vitamin B12 helps
convert odd chain fatty acids and branched chain amino
acids into succinyl-CoA, a common citric acid cycle
intermediate. Vitamin B12 is also required for nucleic
acid (DNA) synthesis, methionine synthesis from cysteine,
and normal myelin synthesis in the nervous system. Along
with vitamin B6 and folic acid, adequate levels of vitamin
B12 are required to maintain normal plasma homocysteine
levels. Elevated plasma homocysteinemay be an
independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular
There are two distinct mechanisms for intestinal vitamin
B12 absorption; receptor-mediated absorption and passive
diffusion. In the first, vitamin B12 attaches to a salivary
“R-binder” protein which transports it into the small
intestine, where vitamin B12 is released. The vitamin then
binds to “Intrinsic Factor” (IF), a glycoprotein normally
produced by the gastric parietal cells. This vitamin B12-IF
complex is carried down to the ileum, where it binds to
Finally, the complex is absorbed and bound to serum
vitamin B12-binding proteins. The second absorption
mechanism, passive diffusion, does not require any
carriers, such as B-binder or IF. Only about 1% of free
vitamin B12 is passively absorbed, but this can be
nutritionally significant with higher dietary vitamin B12
The elderly, HIV/AIDS patients, and strict vegetarians are
often at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, either due to low
dietary intake or impaired absorption. The receptormediated absorption pathway is subject to numerous
genetic and pathologic defects which can severely impair
normal vitamin B12 absorption. These defects include
hereditary absence of IF production, gastric atrophy,
gastrectomy, and small intestinal disorders affecting the
ileum, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, regional
enteritis, chronic diarrhea, and intestinal resection.
Affected individuals depend almost exclusively on the
passive diffusion pathway, which requires high dietary
vitamin B12 intakes.
Vitamin B-12 tablets may be a useful nutritional adjunct
for individuals who wish to increase their intake of
1 Serving (1 Tablet) Contains:
Vitamin B-12 ...................................................500 mcg
Other Ingredients: Dicalcium phosphate, modified
cellulose, vegetable stearin, cellulose gum, magnesium
stearate, and silica.
This product contains NO sugar, salt, dairy, yeast, gluten,
wheat, corn, soy, preservatives, artificial colors or flavors.
As a dietary supplement, adults take 1 tablet daily with
meals, or as directed by a healthcare professional.
No adverse effects have been reported.
Store in a cool, dry place, away from direct light. Keep
out of reach of children.